It online Exam

Saturday 25 July 2020

Maharastra Govt cuts syllabus by 25%

Maharashtra government has reduced the school syllabus for classes 1 to 12 in the state by 25 percent in view of the pandemic for academic year 2020-21.

In view of the pandemic, the Maharashtra government has reduced the syllabus by 25 percent for the academic year 2020-21. The syllabus has been reduced for Class 1 to 12 in the state. The proposal sent out by the State Education Amendment and Training Council has been approved by the state government on Saturday.
Varsha Gaikwad, Minister of School Education has confirmed the news by sharing a tweet on her personal twitter handle. The tweet read, “In view of Kovid 19 (Corona virus) in the state, the State Education Amendment and Training Council had proposed a 25 percent reduction in the syllabus for Classes I to XII of the academic session 2020-21. The state government has approved this proposal.”

Download Changes in the Syllabus (All Subjects Arts-Commerce-Science) of Std 12 2020-21   Click Here

Information Technology - Commerce/Science/Arts Reduction in Syllabus

Details of Content of Textbook reduced for Information Technology - Commerce

Thursday 23 July 2020

2. Digital Marketing - SEO-Mobile Marketing-Content Marketing-PPC

Lesson No.2 Digital Marketing

Note: All the topics are explained in detail with extra content which may be not in the syllabus/textbook. Use the ppts for extra  knowledge/reference. 

For studying use the Textbook

Part 1 - PPT

Traditional Marketing
Traditional marketing is a type of marketing where you promote your brand through the advertisements that we see and hear every day like Newspaper, Radio, Print, Magazine, billboard, calling, etc.
Traditional marketing stands for various offline advertising and promotional methods.

Print Media
Print media is a form of advertising that has existed for decades now. Every major event was first pushed through different forms of print. Before the advent of even telephones to communicate, newspapers, brochures, leaflets and flyers were used to get the attention of people everywhere.  Even with the internet taking over, print media has still been one of the most popular forms of advertising and communication.
Broadcast media
Broadcast media includes marketing through mediums like the Television and Radio. Slowly as different forms of communication took over, Television and Radio became widely accessible. Companies who wanted to increase their reach to a wider and larger audience started using these modes to communicate. This mode of communication helps reach a large group within a limited period of time, which is why it’s still extremely effective.
Direct Mail
Direct-mail marketing creates awareness of a product through postcards, brochures, letters and fliers sent through mail. Direct mail is called a targeted type of marketing strategy because information is sent to a specific target market.
Referral marketing, also known as word of mouth, relies on customers to spread information about products or services
Outdoor marketing includes spreading the message across with mediums such as hoardings, billboards, taxis, bus shelters, benches and buildings.

Digital Marketing

  • Digital marketing is an umbrella term for the marketing of products or services using digital technologies, mainly on the Internet, but also including mobile phones, display advertising, and any other digital medium.
  • Digital marketing is all about engaging the audience in an interactive and engaging with a large target audience.
  • Digital marketing includes a very broad form of communication.

The digital marketing methods include using the following platforms:
Social Media Marketing, Email Marketing, SEO (Search Engine Optimization), PPC (Pay Per Click), Social Media, Online Advertising, Viral Marketing, Text Messaging

Benefits of Digital Marketing

  • Reach the right audience
  • Engage with your audience
  • Motivate the audience
  • Maximize returns on investment


  • Search Engine Optimization is the process of boosting content and technical
  • set-up of the website so that it appear at the top of a search engine result for specific keywords.
  • SEO is to  attract visitors to your website when they search for products or services related to your business.
  • To put it in very simple terms, search engine optimisation is defined as using tools that increase and maximise the number of viewers on a website.
  • This particular system ensures that a website ALWAYS appears on the top of the search list

Mobile Marketing
Mobile Marketing can be understood as the art of marketing your business to connect, convince and convert mobile device users into customers.
Mobile Marketing Channels such as –
Location-based service (LBS), Augmented Reality, 2D Barcodes, GPS messaging

App-based marketing, In-game Mobile Marketing, QR codes, Location-based Mobile Marketing, Mobile Search Ads, Mobile Image Ads, SMS

Social Media Marketing
Social media marketing is the action of creating content to promote your business and products on various social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Youtube, Pinterest, ettc..

Facebook, Users: 1.73 billion daily active users worldwide,
Industry impact: B2C, Best for: Brand awareness; advertising

Twitter, Users: 126 million daily active users worldwide, 
Industry impact: B2B and B2C   Best for: Public relations; customer service

Instagram, Users: 1 billion monthly active users, Industry impact: B2C
Best for: Natural-looking media, behind-the-scenes, and user-generated content; advertising

LinkedIn, Users: 675 million monthly active users worldwide,  Industry impact: B2B, Best for: B2B relationships, business development, and employment marketing

YouTube, Users: Over 2 billion logged-in monthly users worldwide,
Industry impact: B2C, Best for: Brand awareness; entertainment, and how-to videos

Snapchat, Users: 229 million daily active users worldwide
Industry impact: B2C, Best for: Brand awareness; advertising

Pinterest, Users: 367 million monthly active users Best for: Visual advertising; inspiration

1. Increase Brand Awareness
3. Foster Relationships With Customers
4. Learn From Competitors

Content Marketing

  • Content Marketing denotes the creation and promotion of content assets in order to generate brand awareness, lead generation, traffic growth and customers.
  • The channels that play part in your content marketing include video, blogs, e-books, etc.

Various formats
Blogs containing articles, info-graphics
YouTube  Videos
How to do Articles/Videos

Content is King. Quality content is the fuel that drives your Digital Marketing strategies.
Another useful way to reach to customers is the way through contents. Contents written in any website/ portal or even physical means, are a way of attracting people to buy the products or avail the services. The words combined with images becomes a very powerful way to persuade people to anyhow buy the products and this way companies go higher and higher with sales in the digital world. Various Content formats includes – images, infographics, videos, articles & even emojis

Paid Search or PPC (Pay per Click)

  • Paid search or Pay-per-click (PPC) advertising refers to the “sponsored result” on the search engine results pages (SERP).

  • PPC ads are visible, flexible and effective for many different types of organizations.
  • With paid search, companies have to pay only when their ad is clicked.
  • The ads can be tailored to appear when specific search phrases are entered, targeting them to a particular audience.

Google Ads, i.e. Google AdWords, is Google's advertising system in which advertisers bid on certain keywords in order for their clickable ads to appear in Google's search results.
Since advertisers have to pay for these clicks, this is how Google makes money from search.

Wednesday 22 July 2020

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) - Introduction and Types of CSS

Introduction to CSS

  • Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML. 
  • CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.
  • CSS was Developed by Hakon Wium Lie of MIT in 1995. In 1996, level 1 of CSS was published, level 2 comes in 1998 and level 3 ( CSS3) in 2009 with HTML5.

  • CSS describes how elements should be rendered on screen, on paper, in speech, or on other media.
  • CSS saves a lot of work. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all at once
  • With CSS, it is easier to build a website, as css can style whole website using one single css file. 

  • CSS handles the look and feel part of a web page. 
  • Using CSS, you can control the color of the text, the style of fonts, the spacing between paragraphs, how columns are sized and laid out, what background images or colors are used, layout designs, variations in display for different devices and screen sizes as well as a variety of other effects.

CSS Syntax

  • A CSS rule-set consists of a selector and a declaration block:
  • The selector points to the HTML element you want to style.
  • The declaration block contains one or more declarations separated by semicolons.
  • Inside declaration block, property:value pair is used. 
  • Colon : is used to separate property and value. 
  • To add next property value pair, use ; semi-colon. 
  • CSS Syntax is not case-sensitive, but prefer lowercase.

CSS Property and Value

  • Each declaration includes a CSS property name and a value, separated by a colon.
  • Multiple CSS declarations are separated with semicolons, and declaration blocks are surrounded by curly braces.
  • CSS provides variety of properties for styling and positioning the HTML web pages.

Example: font, border, text-decoration, background, position, padding, margins, etc..

CSS Styles are usually written inside <style> element under Head Section. This way of styling is Internal CSS.

Applying CSS in HTML
You can do in three ways:-

  • Create a separate CSS file containing style property-value pairs and link it with <link> tag.
  • Write CSS property-value pairs in the web page inside <style> tags
  • Write CSS property-value pairs in the HTML element starting tag using STYLE attribute

There are three ways of inserting a style sheet:

  • External CSS - Create a separate CSS file containing style property-value pairs.
  • Internal CSS - Write CSS property-value pairs in the web page inside <style> tags.
  • Inline CSS - Write CSS property-value pairs in the HTML element’s Starting tag using STYLE attribute.


Inline CSS

  • Inline CSS allows you to apply a unique style to one HTML element at a time. 
  • You assign CSS to a specific HTML element by using the style attribute with any CSS properties defined within it.
  • The style attribute is written in the starting tag of a HTML element

When to use Inline CSS?

  • Inline styles in CSS could be useful for previewing changes instantly or adding CSS rules to only one or two elements. 
  • Tip: use of inline CSS is not a recommendation. Combining CSS and HTML leads to messy code. 
  • Additionally, inline styles method is difficult to update. 
  • Note: Inline CSS styles will always override style properties determined in internal or external style sheets.

Internal CSS or Embedded CSS

  • Internal CSS is used to apply styles on a single document or page. 
  • It is written inside the <style> tags within head section.
  • Styling changes apply to every specific element found in the file.

External CSS

  • An external stylesheet is used when you want to apply one style to whole website (multiple web pages)
  • The styles are written in a separate file with .css extension.
  • The stylesheet files are linked using the <link> tag which should be placed in the head section of an HTML page

  • Using External Stylesheets, You can apply same styles to multiple web pages.

External CSS -  <link> tag
The <link> tag defines the relationship between the current document and an external resource.
Attributes in the link tag:

  • rel - Specifies the relationship between the current document and the linked document. It takes the value “stylesheet”.
  • href - Specifies the location of the linked external stylesheet.
  • Type - Specifies the media typed of the linked document.  Value: “text/css”

We can have all the three methods applied to a web page.  If same CSS property is defined for an element in Internal, External as well as Inline,  then Inline CSS has the highest priority, then comes Internal/Embedded followed by External CSS which has the least priority.

Which style has highest priority?

What style will be used when there is more than one style specified for an HTML element?

All the styles in a page will "cascade" into a new "virtual" style sheet by the following rules, where number one has the highest priority:
           Inline style (inside an HTML element)
           Internal style sheets and External (in the head section)
           Browser default
So, an inline style has the highest priority, and will override external and internal styles and browser defaults.

Use <link> tag in the head section of all these web pages.
<link rel=“stylesheet” type=“text/css”  href=“style.css”>

CSS Homework
Create a web page with a heading and a paragraph. Using CSS apply the following: 

  • Apply a background color to the webpage.
  • Change the color of heading to blue and alignment center.
  • Change the font of paragraph to ‘Verdana’ and font size to 20px.

Monday 20 July 2020

META tag

About Meta Element

  • Meta tags are part of the HTML tags that describe your page content to search engines and website visitors. 
  • HTML lets you specify metadata - additional important information about a document in a variety of ways.
  • They are part of a web page's head section. 
  • The META elements can be used to include name/value pairs describing properties of the HTML document, such as author, expiry date, a list of keywords, document author etc.
  • Multiple Meta elements with different attributes can be used on the same page. 

  • It is not displayed on the page itself, it can be read by search engines and web crawlers. 
  • The Meta tags appear only in the page’s code and anyone can check them via source code (Ctrl+U).
  • This tag is an empty element and so does not have a closing tag but it carries information within its attributes.

Meta elements can specify HTTP headers which character code should be sent before the actual content when the HTML page is served from the web server to the client. 

For example:

<meta charset="utf-8">

Meta tags can be used to describe the contents of the page: 


<meta name="description" content="The Federal Aviation Administration is an operating mode of the U.S. Department of Transportation.">

  • Meta element used in search engine optimization
  • Meta elements provide information about the web page, which can be used by search engines to help categorize the page correctly.
  • They have been the focus of a field of marketing research known as search engine optimization (SEO), where different methods are used to provide a user's website with a higher ranking on search engines.
  • In short, Meta tags are key things for all search engines that appear in the HTML code of a website page and tells the search engine what the page is about, and they are the first impression and point of contact for all search engines.

Attributes of <meta> tag
  • Name
  • Content
  • Description
  • Charset
  • HTTP-Equiv

Name attribute: 
This attribute is used to define the name of property

Content attribute: 
This attribute is used to specify property value

<meta name=“author”>
It is used to specify the name of the actual person editing the page. 

<meta name=“author” content=“Vikas”>

<meta name=“description”>
It is used to provide a short description about the web page.

<meta name=“description” content=“Provides notes of HSC IT Subject and exam questions”>

<meta name=“keywords”>
It is used to a list of keywords and phrases that are matching the content of your web page.

<meta name=“keywords” content=“HSC IT, IT notes, HTML notes, CSS, html forms”>

Note: The keyword meta tag is obsolete.
Google and other search engines no longer consider the keywords meta tag.

Charset Attribute
The meta charset tag sets the character encoding for the web page. In other words, it tells the browser how the text on your web page should be displayed.
There are hundreds of different character sets, but the two most common on the web are:
UTF‑8           -   Character encoding for Unicode;
ISO-8859-1 - Character encoding for the Latin alphabet.
big5              - Chinese for Taiwan Multi-byte set. 
<meta charset=“UTF-8”>

HTTP-Equiv Attribute
  • The http-equiv attribute is used by servers to gather information about a page using the HTTP header. 
  • The meta tag’s http-equiv attribute set is similar to a http header. 
  • The attribute lets you to send additional information to the browser in the http header. 
  • It can be used to simulate an HTTP response header.
The structure of the meta element is:

<meta http-equiv="value" content="value">

<meta http-equiv="refresh">
It is used to define a time interval for the document to refresh itself.

<meta http-equiv=“refresh” content=“30”>

Example: To redirect your web page to any other webpage

<meta http-equiv="refresh" content=“3; url=">

<meta http-equiv="expires">
It is used to indicate the date and time that the web page is set to expire. When the date is reached, the page will be reloaded even if it is stored in the cache. 


<meta http-equiv=“expires” content=“Tue, 20 Aug 2020 14:25:27 GMT”>

Using Number of seconds:

<meta http-equiv="Expires" content="86400">
86400 sec = 24 hour

It is also used to expire page session at a specified date and time.
<meta http-equiv="expires" content="userid=vikas; expires=Wednesday, 8-aug-2020 23:59:59 GMT;">

Web Browser Caching
  • The browser will fetch all static resources like images, styles, scripts, etc. from the web server during first time loading of the site.
  • When browser caching is enabled on the site for static resources then browser will follow the instruction from the server received through HTTP headers.
  • Browser will store the static resources on local storage with the expiry date or the maximum age received from the server.
  • The static resources are fetched from the browser’s local storage when the next page is loaded.
  • If browser caching is not enabled on the site (expiry time is not set), then the browser will fetch the files every time it loads. This will increase the page load time as well as the load on the server.

HTTP-Equiv Attribute - Cookies
  • Cookies are data, stored in small text files on your computer and it is exchanged between web browser and web server to keep track of various information based on your web application need.
  • Cookies are strings of data that a web server sends to the browser. When a browser requests an object from the same domain in the future, the browser will send the same string of data back to the origin server.
  • The data is sent from the web server in the form of an HTTP header called “Set-Cookie”. The browser sends the cookie back to the server in an HTTP header called “Cookie”.

<meta http-equiv=“set-cookie">
It is used to store cookies on client side and later this information can be used by the Web Server to track a site visitor. 


<meta http-equiv=“set-cookie” content=“userid=xyz; expires=Wednesday, 19-Sept-20 23:59:59 GMT;”>

<meta http-equiv=“content-type">
It is used to indicates the type of data sent to the browser, enabling the browsers to know what to do with data received. 
<meta http-equiv=“Content-Type” content=“text/html;  charset=ISO-8859-1″> 


To know the other meta tag attributes

Friday 3 July 2020

HTML 5 New Attributes

Input Restrictions (Attributes of Input tag)

The disabled Attribute

The input disabled attribute specifies that an input field should be disabled.

A disabled input field is unusable and un-clickable.

The value of a disabled input field will not be sent when submitting the form!

Example:   <input type=text name=“last_name” DISABLED>

The min and max Attributes
The input min and max attributes specify the minimum and maximum values for an input field.

The min and max attributes work with the following input types: number, range, date, datetime-local, month, time and week.

<input  type=number  name=age min=18 max=65>

The pattern Attribute
The input pattern attribute specifies a regular expression that the input field's value is checked against, when the form is submitted.
The pattern attribute works with the following input types: text, date, search, url, tel, email, and password.
Tip: Use the global title attribute to describe the pattern to help the user.

<input type=text name=“fullname”  pattern=“^[a-zA-Z\s]+$”>

A regular expression, or regex for short, is a pattern describing a certain amount of text. 


The readonly Attribute
The input readonly attribute specifies that an input field is read-only.

A read-only input field cannot be modified (however, a user can tab to it, highlight it, and copy the text from it).

The value of a read-only input field will be sent when submitting the form!

The placeholder Attribute
The input placeholder attribute specifies short a hint that describes the expected value of an input field (a sample value or a short description of the expected format).

The short hint is displayed in the input field before the user enters a value.

The placeholder attribute works with the following input types: text, search, url, tel, email, and password.

<input type="tel" id="phone" name="phone" placeholder="123-45-678">

The required Attribute
The input required attribute specifies that an input field must be filled out before submitting the form.

The required attribute works with the following input types: text, search, url, tel, email, password, date pickers, number, checkbox, radio, and file.


<input type="text" name="usrname" required>

The autocomplete attribute 
It specifies whether a form or an input field should have autocomplete on or off.

Autocomplete allows the browser to predict the value. When a user starts to type in a field, the browser should display options to fill in the field, based on earlier typed values.

The autocomplete attribute works with the following <input> types: text, search, url, tel, email, password, datepickers, range, and color.      

<input type="email" name="email" autocomplete="off">

The autofocus attribute 
It is a boolean attribute.

When present, it specifies that the element should automatically get focus when the page loads.

<input type="text" name="fname" autofocus>

Height and Width attribute
The height attribute specifies the height of the element, in pixels.
The width attribute specifies the width of the element, in pixels.
Used with <img>, <iframe>, <video>, <embed>, <canvas> elements, etc.
Note: For input elements, the width attribute is used only with <input type="image">.

<input type="image" src="arrow.gif" alt="Submit" 

                 width="48" height="48">

Multiple attribute
The multiple attribute is a boolean attribute.

When present, it specifies that the user is allowed to enter/select more than one value. 

It is used with <select> tag and <input type=“file”> tag

 Select images: 

<input type="file" name="img" multiple>

id Attribute
It is used to identify uniquely a html element through the document object model.

class attribute
It is used to group html elements together one class for applying CSS styles.